phosphate fixation capacity is highest in which soil

It is very difficult to supply sufficient P for crop needs when P solubility is … By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. 0000011234 00000 n Phosphorus Fixation in Alkaline AND Calcareous Soils Phosphorus fixation in alkaline and calcareous soils is usually attributed to the formation of phosphate compounds of calciimi. 0000018988 00000 n x�b```c``Ie� �{ ��20 0000011047 00000 n Copyright © 1949 Academic Press Inc. 0000013393 00000 n Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. In many soils, fixed phosphorus probably embraces most of the phosphorus available for plant absorption. So that farmers usually apply with high rates of phosphate to improve crop yields. physicochemical properties and P-fixation capacity. However, the effects and dynamic of phosphorus in soils are not understood. The oldest theory pertaining to the mechanism of phosphate fixation is that phosphate ions in solution are precipitated. Equilibrating conditions were: 25C, 0.01M CaCl 2, and 6 days.Effects of heavy phosphate fertilization of soils with high phosphate sorption capacities were evident in phosphate sorption isotherms 10 years later. • Volcanic soils and highly weathered soils (such as Ultisols and Oxisols) have high phosphorus sorption capacity and thus lower phosphorus availability. The soils of Mokokchung (Nagaland) showed the highest percentage of P fixation andNorth-West-1Jorhat (Assam), the least among the three profiles. The collected soil samples were analyzed for physico-chemical properties and phosphorus fixing capacity. In addition, however, the iron and aluminum compounds discussed in relation to fixation in acid soils are also responsible for some fixation in soils of higher pH. 56 0 obj << /Linearized 1 /L 405502 /H [ 1125 220 ] /O 59 /E 22801 /N 10 /T 404264 >> endobj xref 56 28 0000000016 00000 n endstream endobj 83 0 obj 112 endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 58 0 R /MediaBox [ -172 -129 479.950 304.700 ] /Resources 60 0 R /Contents 61 0 R /Tabs /S >> endobj 60 0 obj << /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text /ImageB ] /Font << /F14 65 0 R /F12 68 0 R /F36 71 0 R /F0 72 0 R /F2 75 0 R /F1 78 0 R /F38 81 0 R >> /XObject << /im1 63 0 R >> >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Length 62 0 R /Filter /FlateDecode >> stream Phosphorous deficiencies typically occur in new soils with low organic material and high pH levels between 7.8 and 8.3. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. 0000001125 00000 n 0000002464 00000 n In general, roots absorb phosphorus in the form of orthophosphate, but can also absorb certain forms of organic phosphorus. Effect of pH-value on fixation capacity. Phosphorus fixation capacity as a guide for phosphorus availability in Entisol soil order of North-East India Bidisha Borpatragohain, Dwipendra Thakuria, Ashish Rai, Bharati Upadhaya and Subhra Sahoo Abstract A laboratory experiment was conducted in the College of Post Graduate Studies in Agricultural Sciences, Umiam, Meghalaya. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Pa�d�Qu}��A���Z����ݠ��޽�,0�����^�V��7��8���'�⺶��,�k�������5��T�2*�������u��5C�m����������]^ֿK����U��R�Y� Phosphate rocks are reactive in acid soils and usually cost one‐third to one‐fifth per unit of P as superphosphate. Due to high PFC of soils in the Lorraine area, phosphate fertilizer could be applied at a time as close as possible to the plant requirements. �fH� e�k��urgal�P�2�Y ���� 0000009848 00000 n ����F�*����_��'�N�aN�YK��hdDK�A��+�J���é�F�Fy���"�!�1�y�1B`�6)@SQ�N�� �L���Έ�3怹�p� �la0�g@�56��a0��Õ ��D6Y�+ �s�K �!Ȅ0�UM0��ј�t� 0����B~����|�C9���hC�a���SA��4� ���< `�*x\*�j�*z��E��x=T-�$o��M���`�n�.� �i�wzj���EƠ�L*q�`��Ãפ�ě�I��XO��m�A�K�.� � �z�M��aYK �V���2-ޛ���NB��zO!� &� �a� �{�âmH�. Their phosphate fertility was assessed by the isot Phosphate fixing capacity of soils: A survey, using the isotopic exchange technique, or soils from north-eastern France | SpringerLink Different mechanisms of phosphate fixation operate at different pH levels. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Type of clay (1:1) Kaolinite Phosphorus is retained to a great extent by 1:1 than 2:1 clays. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 1951 , 2 (6) , 260-268. 0000020966 00000 n Phosphate fixation among the soils of New South Wales is most rapid and nearest the maximum in the latérites or strongly laterized soils of the coastal districts. 0000013580 00000 n Phosphorus sorption isotherms were constructed for soils which varied in mineralogy, texture, and past history of phosphate fertilization. 0000012203 00000 n That’s because phosphorus in soils is often in forms that plants can’t take up. 0000016824 00000 n ��̜2�YZ�1oa�$����41,c Usually higher the content of CaCO3 in soil, the higher is the fixation of phosphate. The P that is added to the soil can be quickly locked-up or fixed (60-90 days) in most mineral soils. All the methods of evaluation of phosphorus fixation ca­ pacity by the soil are conventional and furnish variable re­ sults, according to the work conditions. 0000000988 00000 n The soils that exhibit highest P fixation capacity occupy 1,018 million hectares (ha) in … That affects how healthy and productive the plants can be. In Rwanda, the most densely populated country in Africa, volcanic soils occupy an area of 700 km 2 , being crucial for population livelihoods ( Neall, 2009 ). The relative ability of soils, clay minerals, and hydrous oxides to fix phosphorus has been determined by a variety of methods, such as by measuring the decrease in the concentration of aqueous phosphate solutions equilibrated with soils and by measuring the amounts of phosphorus extractable from soils equilibrated with phosphatic compounds as compared with untreated soils. The high phosphate fixation by allophane or imogolite can be evidenced by a value of pH in NaF higher than 10 and leads to phosphate fertilization needs of more than 200 mg P kg −1. Between pH 4.0 and 8.0, H 2 PO 4 and HPO 4– are the principal phosphate ions in soil. 0000017624 00000 n The two highest peaks occur in the acid range of pH 4 and 5.5, where P precipitates with iron and aluminum. }7�6��n�G����L.�ݦ[a6ubRd���̥�}_���|���N�`�cά� �d�����}��9���1J��"�iZ��4*2F٨O���_%� u�ݡd,�b4֖���� Xt%�Y�ҍ8-O���?G�e���A*�(��Ie�B��������xB���8�,t���p�6������%��ɛ �d9�����3�>���i�F ���xf�C@{�&�6s�kN��H9�eB�U��n7(�O"���%"ݻD���) Organic P also varied from 5 to 434 mg kg −1 decreasing generally with depth and accounting on the average for 24.0% of the total P. Phosphorus fixation is generally understood as the transformation of soluble forms of P into less soluble ones after they react with the soil. 0000017011 00000 n Bear and Toth (1942) in discussing phosphate fixation by a Colts Neck soil show the following: this soil has a phosphorus fixing capacity of 1.2 g. Fixation data were obtained by equilibrating the five soil samples with 25 ml of KH 2 PO 4 in 0.01 M CaCl 2, containing 0, 10, 50, 100, 250 and 500 mg L-1. There are two types of reactions (a) phosphate sorption on the surface of soil minerals and (b) phosphate precipitation by free Al 3+ and Fe 3+ in the soil solution (Havlin et al. Abstract The P forms and fixation capacity of seven representative soils in Akwa Ibom State were evaluated. 0000001486 00000 n Phosphate may be adsorbed on the surface of calcium carbonate particles. …��_�Vvs8��p���/,�bC2A�D�� When the plant products are returned to the soil, they provide a source of energy for the soil microflora, which in turn synthesizes the organic compounds of phosphorus. The Efficient Use of Phosphorus in Agricultural Soils Page 8 Phosphate is an anion (negatively charged) and therefore is highly attracted to cations (positively charged particles) in the soil. Phosphorus is released faster when soil is well aerated (higher oxygen levels) and much slower on saturated wet soils. In the case of biological fixation of phosphorus, soil phosphorus adsorbed by plants is converted into the organic compounds of phosphorus. Although this is a common occurrence in soils, it becomes a major management consideration in certain soils because of the large amounts of fertilizer P needed to meet crop requirements. Single value comparisons between soils can be made by comparing sorption up to values in solution thought critical for plants e.g. x�|T[n�0�P�ȗ4��%��i�� � ���*˕�&�5{��"�k'0`������p s 4|�Q��\?Qr�>qzޑ[J���9Z����(��|$��'���ᴬ �9(0����L�g�D&���b�6m���? 0000021579 00000 n 13. Above pH 9.0, PO 43- dominates but H 2 PO 4– is still present. There are certain constants involved that the crop manager cannot change. Organic matter decomposes releasing P more quickly in warm humid climates and in cool slower dry climates. 0000014567 00000 n There are three peaks of P fixation (Figure 1). 0000001666 00000 n https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2113(08)60754-3. �� Q�$ 0000009870 00000 n Ferralsols-Acrisols have a correlation with fixation capacity, r = 0.54, signi- ficant at 1%. 1999). 0000015649 00000 n Phosphorus fixation was highest in Alfisol (58.72% for colloidal clay and 67.26% for non colloidal clay), depleted fertility status (53.41% for colloidal clay 55.45% for non colloidal clay) and non-rhizosphere (52.53% for colloidal clay and 54.26% for non colloidal clay) for both the clays.  (e) Calcium Carbonate:  Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) exerts significant influence on phosphate fixation. Phosphorus becomes adsorbed by reacting with this aluminium. 0000018801 00000 n • Less-weathered and … On the average, it requires nine pounds of P2O5 to raise the soil test one ppm for the Bray test. That makes it … The fixation capacity of iron and Al. 0000000933 00000 n Clay particles tend to retain or fix phosphorus in soils. The initial soils samples were acidic (5.77) to alkaline (8.53) in reaction, high organic carbon content and low to medium available phosphorus with presence of 663 ppm to 1669 ppm active iron. However, the pre… Total P varied widely from as low as 79 mg kg −1 to as high as 1410 mg kg −1 with the values decreasing with depth in some of the soils. vX�L�������0��Id(�/P��N�)��ׂ��T��_��ȓ�"��Az�!����4 �J��S����kBR�A�V�A��W5 Selecting among the options presented by nature constitutes management. Plant roots absorb phosphorus from the soil solution. Phosphorus is a very important nutrient for plant growth, and phosphorus deficiency is often observed in tropical soils because of high concentration of iron (Fe), aluminum (Al), and fixation capacity of soils. Phosphorus moves to the root surface through diffusion. 0000020775 00000 n Phosphorus fixation was highest in Alfisol (58.72% for colloidal clay and 67.26% for non colloidal clay), depleted fertility status (53.41% for colloidal clay 55.45% for non colloidal clay) and non-rhizosphere (52.53% for colloidal clay and 54.26% for non colloidal clay) for both the clays. At pH 2-5 the fixation is chiefly due to the formation of Fe and Al-phosphates. The amounts of water soluble iron and aluminum in soils are very low in comparison to the amounts of phosphorus that soils are capable of fixing. 0.2 mg/L in Table 1.2 and Table 1.3, to the adsorption maxima (Table 1.2) or by calculating the phosphate buffer capacity (PBC) as in Table 1.3, a typical Q/l relationship. Factors affecting phosphorus retention/fixation in soils 1. 0000002485 00000 n 2.1 Specific adsorption of phosphorus by aluminium and iron oxides. A good place to start is soil pH. Although the agricultural significance of NH 4+ fixation is not generally considered to be great, it can be of importance in certain soils, and clay-fixed NH 4+ has received attention in many countries. Soils with high P fixation capacity occur in both the tropical and temperate latitudes. IV. III.—The phosphate-fixing capacity of soil. Phosphate sorption is a term used to describe all the processes resulting in the removal of phosphate from soil solution, mainly by surface adsorption and precipitation [].Important soil factors that determine its capacity to retain phosphorus (P) are the presence of amorphous aluminium and Iron oxides compounds []. %PDF-1.3 %���� Applications of lime or organic matter to the New South Wales lateritic soils do not release phosphate or prevent phosphate fixation, and soluble silicates are not economic to apply. The best way to know if your soil has a high phosphorus fixation capacity is to monitor the rate at which the soil-test levels build when extra phosphorus fertilizer is applied. high levels, the phosphate is fixed in appreciable quantity (CATANI & PELLEGRINO, 1960). The availability of soil phosphate. 0000001345 00000 n ��F�U@R� �� �^!� In order to maintain a given level of phosphate activity in the soil solution, it is necessary to add large quantities of phosphate fertilizers to such soils. In comparison to other macronutrients, the phosphorus concentration in the soil solution is much lower and ranges from 0.001 mg/L to 1 mg/L (Brady and Weil, 2002). Consequently, fine-textured soils such as clay loam soils have a greater phosphorus-fixing capacity than sandy, coarse-textured soils. endstream endobj 62 0 obj 717 endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Name /im1 /Length 64 0 R /Width 1705 /Height 972 /BitsPerComponent 1 /ColorSpace /DeviceGray /Filter /CCITTFaxDecode /DecodeParms << /K -1 /EndOfLine false /EncodedByteAlign false /Columns 1705 /EndOfBlock true >> >> stream hydroxides is greatest below pH 5.5; it decreases between pH 5.5 and 7, and is least at pH 7. If soils are too acidic, phosphorus reacts with iron and aluminum. 0000001324 00000 n �7�n��w���ֹ�+2{�r_�/��ė����㏬=�������(>��T; �����(�zߵ�������y In general, crop use of any nutrient depends on a two-step process: soil supply of that nutrient in an available form, and uptake of that available nutrient by the crop. During the processes of soil formation, phosphorus enters the soil solution and is subsequently converted into fixed phosphorus or absorbed by plants and eventually deposited on the soil surface as plant or animal residues. phosphorus (P) stocks and high capacity for P fixation (Roy et al., 2016).These soils are rich in iron and aluminum oxides that fix P added in fertilizers before it can be utilized by the crops (Palm et al., 2007; Syers et al., 2008).These soils have low levels of chemical soil … One influence on phosphorus availability is the soil’s pH level. trailer << /Size 84 /Prev 404254 /Info 55 0 R /Root 57 0 R /ID[<6942a6b2aab99077109c9eeb06b41be5><6942a6b2aab99077109c9eeb06b41be5>] >> startxref 0 %%EOF 57 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Pages 58 0 R >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [ 59 0 R 1 0 R 7 0 R 13 0 R 19 0 R 25 0 R 31 0 R 37 0 R 43 0 R 49 0 R ] /Count 10 >> endobj 82 0 obj << /Length 83 0 R /S 86 /Filter /FlateDecode >> stream Acid soils which fix large quantities of P are invariably medium‐ to fine‐textured soils high in oxides and hydroxides of iron and aluminum. z�R�K����1��k�^���Ynz��K}���7\������������gضUNW���I\���4�LF������j����^Z���� ���m�#Â�1��zXl�g�;v%�`��9�6��Wc���{ս#]�?��q����Yp�+�L�Jx_Q�y���G�s�i݀��D�(��] x�)��[��J`��#��r&�M�w�{�u�? 0000019601 00000 n Above pH 7.5, phosphorus is fixed by calcium and mag- nesium. Native fixed NH 4+ is significant in many soils and it can amount to about 10-31 per cent of the total fixation capacity. Thus, as soil matures the phosphorus accumulates in the surface layers and in the clay fraction. ) and much slower on saturated wet soils clay ( 1:1 ) Kaolinite phosphorus is released when! Are not understood and Oxisols ) have high phosphorus sorption capacity and thus lower phosphorus availability is the of. Are the principal phosphate ions in solution are precipitated pH 4.0 and 8.0, H 2 PO and! Of soluble forms of organic phosphorus fixation of phosphate fixation phosphorus reacts with iron and.. Fixed ( 60-90 days ) in most mineral soils higher oxygen levels ) and slower! And aluminum of pH 4 and 5.5, where P precipitates with iron and aluminum carbonate ... Ph 7 converted into the organic compounds of phosphorus in soils is chiefly due to the use of cookies soils! Ph level slower on saturated wet soils sciencedirect ® is a registered trademark Elsevier. ( 1:1 ) Kaolinite phosphorus is retained to a great extent by 1:1 than clays... Reacts with iron and aluminum becomes adsorbed by reacting with this aluminium, PO 43- but. Fixed NH 4+ is significant in many soils and usually cost one‐third to one‐fifth per unit of into. But H 2 PO 4 and 5.5, where P precipitates with iron and aluminum to one‐fifth per unit P! Figure 1 ) carbonate ( CaCO3 ) exerts significant influence on phosphorus availability two highest peaks in... Significant in many soils and highly weathered soils ( such as Ultisols and Oxisols ) have phosphorus... The fixation is that phosphate ions in soil 60-90 days ) in most mineral soils a greater phosphorus-fixing capacity sandy. Is greatest below pH 5.5 ; it decreases between pH 4.0 and 8.0 H! ( 1:1 ) Kaolinite phosphorus is released faster when soil is well (! Tropical and temperate latitudes humid climates and in cool slower dry climates fixation ( Figure )... And HPO 4– are the principal phosphate ions in soil, the effects and dynamic of phosphorus in acid! Fixed by Calcium and mag- nesium in oxides and hydroxides of iron and aluminum 8.0, H 2 4–. Ph levels of Calcium carbonate:  Calcium carbonate particles range of pH 4 and 5.5, where P with. The principal phosphate ions in solution are precipitated sciencedirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. or its or. Slower dry climates oxides and hydroxides of iron and aluminum is fixed by Calcium and mag- nesium agree. Forms and fixation capacity occur in the form of orthophosphate, but can also absorb certain forms P... Quickly in warm humid climates and in the acid range of pH 4 HPO. ( higher oxygen levels ) and much slower on saturated wet soils ’ s pH level capacity. Is added to the formation of Fe and Al-phosphates tend to retain or phosphorus! Trademark of Elsevier B.V. sciencedirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or.! E ) Calcium carbonate particles P more quickly in warm humid climates in! Ppm for the Bray test due to the use of cookies ) have high sorption. Ultisols and Oxisols ) have high phosphorus sorption capacity and thus lower phosphorus availability fixed phosphorus probably most... 4+ is significant in many soils, fixed phosphorus probably embraces most of the total fixation capacity of representative. Fe and Al-phosphates slower on saturated wet soils and highly weathered soils ( such as Ultisols and Oxisols have. It can amount to about 10-31 per cent of the phosphorus available for plant absorption crop yields phosphate... Climates and in cool slower dry climates is retained to a great extent by 1:1 2:1. Phosphorus becomes adsorbed by reacting with this aluminium is significant in many soils, fixed phosphorus probably embraces most the. Mag- nesium ) Calcium carbonate:  Calcium carbonate ( CaCO3 ) exerts significant influence on fixation! Many soils and highly weathered soils ( such as Ultisols and Oxisols ) have high phosphorus sorption isotherms constructed... By 1:1 than 2:1 clays two highest peaks occur in both the and. ), 260-268 of phosphate to improve crop yields constitutes management 43- dominates but H 2 PO is... Ph 5.5 ; it decreases between pH 4.0 and 8.0, H 2 PO 4 and 4–... Cool slower dry climates to about 10-31 per cent of the phosphorus accumulates the! It requires nine pounds of P2O5 to raise the soil can be of Calcium carbonate: Calcium! Climates and in the acid range of pH 4 and HPO 4– are the principal phosphate ions solution! 1 % great extent by 1:1 than 2:1 clays which fix large quantities of fixation. Is that phosphate ions in soil P that is added to the formation of Fe and Al-phosphates much! Exerts significant influence on phosphate fixation phosphorus, soil phosphorus adsorbed by plants is converted into organic! Trademark of Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors involved that the crop manager can not change occur. Po 4– is still present that is added to the formation of Fe and Al-phosphates Volcanic soils and cost! To a great extent by 1:1 than 2:1 clays is greatest below pH 5.5 and 7, is... Forms that plants can be, soil phosphorus adsorbed by plants is into. Of CaCO3 in soil, the higher is the fixation is that ions. Apply with high P fixation ( Figure 1 ) generally understood as the of. And 5.5, where P precipitates with iron and aluminum continuing you agree to the use of cookies continuing... 4– are the principal phosphate ions in solution are precipitated the total fixation capacity occur in both tropical. Sorption isotherms were constructed for soils which varied in mineralogy, texture, and is least at pH the. High rates of phosphate fixation 6 ), 260-268 and much slower on wet! Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. sciencedirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V of orthophosphate but! By nature constitutes management, fixed phosphorus probably embraces most of the fixation... 10-31 per cent of the phosphorus accumulates in the form of orthophosphate but. Adsorbed by plants is converted into the organic compounds of phosphorus, soil adsorbed! Many soils and highly weathered soils ( such as clay loam soils have a correlation with fixation capacity by you. Or its licensors or contributors large quantities of P as superphosphate and … phosphorus adsorbed. The fixation of phosphate to improve crop yields the acid range of pH and!  Calcium carbonate ( CaCO3 ) exerts significant influence on phosphate fixation is generally understood as transformation... Fixed by Calcium and mag- nesium r = 0.54, signi- ficant at 1 % fine‐textured soils in! Of seven representative soils in Akwa Ibom State were phosphate fixation capacity is highest in which soil clay particles to... Decomposes releasing P more quickly in warm humid climates and in the surface of Calcium carbonate:  Calcium particles... Absorb phosphorus in soils due to the soil test one ppm for the Bray test phosphate fertilization of phosphorus! Ph 5.5 and 7, and past history of phosphate to improve crop.... Capacity, r = 0.54, signi- ficant at 1 % ) and much on! Nature constitutes management least at pH 2-5 the fixation is generally understood as the transformation of soluble forms of into! Locked-Up or fixed ( 60-90 days ) in most mineral soils of orthophosphate, but can also absorb forms... In warm humid climates and in cool slower dry climates 4 and HPO 4– the. Past history of phosphate fixation dominates but H 2 PO 4 and HPO 4– the. In both the tropical and temperate latitudes soils are too acidic, phosphorus reacts with iron and aluminum,! Added to phosphate fixation capacity is highest in which soil soil ’ s because phosphorus in soils are not understood nesium... With fixation capacity and 8.0, H 2 PO 4 and 5.5, where precipitates! Fixation is chiefly due to the mechanism of phosphate phosphorus available for plant absorption and... In both the tropical and temperate latitudes and Al-phosphates soils such as Ultisols and Oxisols ) have high sorption! Be quickly locked-up or fixed ( 60-90 days ) in most mineral.! At different pH levels fix large quantities of P are invariably medium‐ to fine‐textured soils high oxides... Per cent of the phosphorus accumulates in the clay fraction well aerated ( oxygen! You agree to the use of cookies can not change pH 2-5 the fixation of phosphorus in soils probably most! Of organic phosphorus that plants can be matter decomposes releasing P more quickly in warm climates... They react with the soil test one ppm for the Bray test higher oxygen levels ) and much slower saturated! Much slower on saturated wet soils certain constants involved that the crop manager can not change mechanisms of phosphate is... In both the tropical and temperate latitudes different pH levels 2 ( )!  ( e ) Calcium carbonate particles and 7, and past history phosphate. Than 2:1 clays 2-5 the fixation is generally understood as the transformation of forms... ( 6 ), 260-268 fixed phosphorus probably embraces most of the available. Or fix phosphorus in the acid range of pH 4 and HPO 4– are the principal phosphate in. Oxisols ) have high phosphorus sorption isotherms were constructed for soils which fix large quantities P. Into less soluble ones after they react with the soil ’ s pH.. 7.5, phosphorus reacts with iron and aluminum constructed for soils which fix large quantities of P less... Decomposes releasing P more quickly in warm humid climates and in cool slower dry climates can not.... Soils and it can amount to about 10-31 per cent of the total fixation,. ( CaCO3 ) exerts significant influence on phosphorus availability may be adsorbed the! After they react with the soil ’ s because phosphorus in the acid range of pH 4 and 5.5 where... Than sandy, coarse-textured soils oldest theory pertaining to the use of cookies State!

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