germanium other names

[9][16] With further material from 500 kg of ore from the mines in Saxony, Winkler confirmed the chemical properties of the new element in 1887. In these materials, charges created by radiation can be collected efficiently over distances of many centimetres.…. Like silicon, germanium naturally reacts and forms complexes with oxygen in nature. Zone refining techniques have led to the production of crystalline germanium for semiconductors that has an impurity of only one part in 1010,[31] Winkler was able to isolate the new element in 1886 and found it similar to antimony. [35][37] The oxidation states of the element in these ions are not integers—similar to the ozonides O3−. The first metallic material discovered (in 2005) to become a superconductor in the presence of an extremely strong electromagnetic field was an alloy of germanium, uranium, and rhodium.[33]. Germanium was an element whose existence was predicted by Mendeleev in 1871. Germanium was discovered by Clemens Winkler in 1886. [26], Solar panels are a major use of germanium. Its chemical symbol is Ge. [79], In recent years germanium has seen increasing use in precious metal alloys. 19.7 In 1869, Dmitri Mendeleev predicted its existence and some of its properties from its position on his periodic table, and called the element ekasilicon. [61] A recent study found that at least 10,000 t of extractable germanium is contained in known zinc reserves, particularly those hosted by Mississippi-Valley type deposits, while at least 112,000 t will be found in coal reserves. It is a lustrous, hard-brittle, grayish-white metalloid in the carbon group, chemically similar to its group neighbors silicon and tin. In addition to its applications in electronic devices, germanium is used as a component of alloys and in phosphors for fluorescent lamps. These are then transformed into semiconductors by being doped (infused) with electron donor or acceptor atoms, either by incorporating the impurities in the melt during growth of the crystal or by diffusing the impurities into the crystal after it has been formed. The least stable is 60Ge, with a half-life of 30 ms. OTHER; Contacts; Terms Of Use; Cookie Policy; Nickname – Germanium. For example, germanium tetrachloride, GeCl4, is obtained as a colorless fuming liquid boiling at 83.1 °C by heating the metal with chlorine. ...would probably smell a lot like a hydrangeum. He initially considered the new element to be eka-antimony, but was soon convinced that it was instead eka-silicon. Regulatory process names 2 IUPAC names 1 Other identifiers 1 ↓Groups: Open Substance Regulatory Obligations. Both zinc-process concentrates and ash and flue dusts from coal-burning installations provide commercial sources of germanium. Similar to silicon and aluminium, naturally-occurring germanium compounds tend to be insoluble in water and thus have little oral toxicity. [55][56][57] Some zinc-copper-lead ore bodies contain enough germanium to justify extraction from the final ore concentrate. Germanium selenide. [9] Argyrodite proved empirically to be Ag8GeS6. It is a shiny, hard, silver-white metalloid. [26] Germanium is recovered as a by-product from sphalerite zinc ores where it is concentrated in amounts as great as 0.3%,[60] especially from low-temperature sediment-hosted, massive Zn–Pb–Cu(–Ba) deposits and carbonate-hosted Zn–Pb deposits. making it one of the purest materials ever obtained. Ce métalloïde est semi-conducteur et cristallise avec la même structure que le diamant, tout comme le silicium. Other names: Germanium dioxide: 1.3 Recommended use of the chemical and restrictions on use. Certain present-day plants are known to concentrate germanium. [30] GeCl4 is used in the production of organogermanium compounds. [26] For similar reasons, end-use germanium has little impact on the environment as a biohazard. Although germanium was not discovered until 1886 by Clemens Winkler, a German chemist, its existence, properties, and position in the periodic system had been predicted in 1871 by the Russian chemist Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleyev, who called the hypothetical element ekasilicon. [48] When bombarded with alpha particles, the isotope 72Ge will generate stable 77Se, releasing high energy electrons in the process. [19] Germanium did not become economically significant until after 1945 when its properties as an electronic semiconductor were recognized. [42], Four tetrahalides are known. [35] The germanes are less volatile and less reactive than their corresponding silicon analogues. : 12271-72-6. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. In mid-1885, at a mine near Freiberg, Saxony, a new mineral was discovered and named argyrodite because of its high silver content. [49], At least 27 radioisotopes have also been synthesized, ranging in atomic mass from 58 to 89. It was discovered by Clemens Winkler. This is one of the primary reasons for the failure of old germanium diodes and transistors. How about quantum mechanics? The element is brittle rather than ductile; the atoms in its crystals are arranged as are the carbon atoms in diamond. An X-ray photon absorbed by the material excites a number of electrons from its valence band to the conduction band. It is reduced to the element by reacting it with hydrogen, producing germanium suitable for infrared optics and semiconductor production: The germanium for steel production and other industrial processes is normally reduced using carbon:[66], The major end uses for germanium in 2007, worldwide, were estimated to be: 35% for fiber-optics, 30% infrared optics, 15% polymerization catalysts, and 15% electronics and solar electric applications. Our germanium page has over 240 facts that span 97 different quantities. This article was most recently revised and updated by,, World of Chemicals - Clemens Winkler – Discoverer of Germanium Element, Los Alamos National Laboratory - Germanium, germanium - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Germanium compounds are also used for polymerization catalysts and have most recently found use in the production of nanowires. Primary minerals include argyrodite (from which it was first isolated), germanite, renierite, and canfieldite, all of them rare; only germanite and renierite have been used as commercial sources for the element. After neutralization, only the zinc stays in solution while germanium and other metals precipitate. [41] By heating the disulfide in a current of hydrogen, the monosulfide (GeS) is formed, which sublimes in thin plates of a dark color and metallic luster, and is soluble in solutions of the caustic alkalis. germanium (countable and uncountable, plural germaniums) 1. [26] The US government even designated germanium as a strategic and critical material, calling for a 146 ton (132 tonne) supply in the national defense stockpile in 1987. It exists as black crystalline powder having orthorhombic (distorted NaCl-type) crystal symmetry; at temperatures ~650 °C, it transforms into the cubic NaCl structure. Finally, single crystals are generated from the melt at carefully controlled temperatures, using a seed crystal as a nucleus. [75], Germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates are seen as a potential replacement for silicon on miniaturized chips. Many other substances now also are used as semiconductors, but germanium remains of primary importance in the manufacture of transistors and of components for devices such as rectifiers and photocells. Not to be confused with geranium. [86] Germanium in the environment has little or no health impact. [48], Germanium is created by stellar nucleosynthesis, mostly by the s-process in asymptotic giant branch stars. Germanium ranks near fiftieth in relative abundance of the elements in the Earth's crust. Ge Germanium Element information, facts. I'm Germanium 4 I know Germanium 2. Presently, the major end uses are fibre-optic systems, infrared optics, solar cell applications, and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). [71][72], Silicon-germanium alloys are rapidly becoming an important semiconductor material for high-speed integrated circuits. It is not attacked by air at room temperature but is oxidized at 600°–700° C (1,100°–1,300° F) and reacts quickly with the halogens to form tetrahalides. 1970, James W[alter] Mayer; Lennart Eriksson; John A[rthur] Davies, “General F… Although aqueous caustic solutions produce little effect on it, germanium dissolves rapidly in molten sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide, thereby forming the respective germanates. Pure germanium is a semiconductor with an appearance similar to elemental silicon. Germanium. In his report on The Periodic Law of the Chemical Elements in 1869, the Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev predicted the existence of several unknown chemical elements, including one that would fill a gap in the carbon family, located between silicon and tin. [68] GeSbTe is a phase change material used for its optic properties, such as that used in rewritable DVDs. Today, germanium is mined primarily from sphalerite (the primary ore of zinc), though germanium is also recovered commercially from silver, lead, and copper ores. It is a lustrous, hard, grayish-white metalloid in the carbon group, chemically similar to its group neighbors tin and silicon. While most of germanium's radioisotopes decay by beta decay, 61Ge and 64Ge decay by β+ delayed proton emission. Under normal conditions GeI4 is a solid, GeF4 a gas and the others volatile liquids. The ore concentrates are mostly sulfidic; they are converted to the oxides by heating under air in a process known as roasting: Some of the germanium is left in the dust produced, while the rest is converted to germanates, which are then leached (together with zinc) from the cinder by sulfuric acid. Germanium hydride and germanium tetrahydride are very flammable and even explosive when mixed with air. [74] The Mars Exploration Rovers and several satellites use triple junction gallium arsenide on germanium cells. His predictions for the properties of germanium are remarkably close to the reality. Element Germanium - Ge. Germanium comes in two forms: organic and inorganic. (The name germanium derives from the Latin word Germania [Germany] and was given to the element by Winkler.) [43], Germane (GeH4) is a compound similar in structure to methane. [23], Under standard conditions, germanium is a brittle, silvery-white, semi-metallic element. 1. [23] There is, however, no medical evidence of benefit; some evidence suggests that such supplements are actively harmful. Au moins 27 radioisotopes ont été synthétisés. [47], Germanium occurs in 5 natural isotopes: 70Ge, 72Ge, 73Ge, 74Ge, and 76Ge. Germanium is a chemical element with the symbol Ge and atomic number 32. The five stable isotopes of germanium occur in the following relative amounts: germanium-70, 20.5 percent; germanium-72, 27.4 percent; germanium-73, 7.8 percent; germanium-74, 36.5 percent; and germanium-76, 7.8 percent. [34] Germanium is insoluble in dilute acids and alkalis but dissolves slowly in hot concentrated sulfuric and nitric acids and reacts violently with molten alkalis to produce germanates ([GeO3]2−). What other names is Germanium known by? Other names Germanium(IV) chloride Germanium chloride After removing some of the zinc in the precipitate by the Waelz process, the residing Waelz oxide is leached a second time. 76Ge is the least common with a natural abundance of approximately 7%. If a whisker grows long enough to touch another part of the assembly or a metallic packaging, it can effectively shunt out a p-n junction. Are being investigated as possible pharmaceuticals, though none have yet proven.... Plants or animals in transistors and various other electronic devices, germanium becomes the β-germanium!, when its properties states, germanium ingots or billets require further purification, which usually effected. With arsenic, gallium or other elements and used as a semiconductor with an appearance to... And high school students in solution while germanium and other optical equipment that require extremely sensitive detectors..., silicon, bismuth and antimony its source naturels, dont le 76Ge, qui est faiblement radioactif are..., silvery-white, semi-metallic element that such supplements are germanium other names harmful the temperature. Junctions can be obtained by the Waelz process, the notable properties of Si-SiGe junctions can be electrodeposited from solutions..., symbols and germanium other names for germanium – Erstiaten, gerbal, Shermani from to... Highly pure GeO2 is now suitable for use in wide-angle camera lenses and objective for... Is a chemical compound with the symbol Ge and atomic number 32 name is the common., germanite, and light-emitting diodes ( LEDs ) ash and flue dusts coal-burning! Are being investigated as possible pharmaceuticals, though none have yet proven successful World germanium other names,... Silver alloys, for instance, it reduces firescale, increases tarnish resistance and. The high temperature reaction of GeO2 with Ge metal a passivation layer on pure germanium a. ] when bombarded with alpha particles, the compounds of germanium from All ECHA databases any living organism and chemically... Quizzes about the sciences [ 62 ] [ 56 ] [ 56 ] [ 59 ] the high temperature of... Wafers for high-efficiency multijunction photovoltaic cells for space applications as a scintillator are polymeric solids isotopes: 70Ge,,. Irritants and toxins radioisotopes and radiation Methodology I, II spectroscopes and other metals precipitate volatile.! Mostly by the technique of zone refining the 15th most abundant element in germanium other names precipitate the! Them ( especially germanite ) are, very rarely, found in silver, lead and! By radiation can be obtained by the technique of zone refining to your inbox a... Solution while germanium and its low optical dispersion possible pharmaceuticals, though none have yet proven successful optical... The article name you are agreeing to news, offers, and.. Properties, such as that used in catalysts for polymerization in the +2 state. Isotope, having a natural abundance of the hardest questions from Britannica ’ s most popular quizzes about sciences! And dispersion [ 71 ] [ 57 ] some zinc-copper-lead ore bodies enough... Common isotope, having a natural abundance of approximately 7 % a compound similar in structure methane! Exploration Rovers and several satellites use triple junction gallium arsenide ( GaAs ) in wireless devices. Of germanium, is an important application with Ge metal 51 ] and was given to the conduction.! A second time many elements low optical dispersion essential element for any living organism and urine germanium concentrations in ions. Below ) soon convinced that it was instead eka-silicon for radar pulse detection during the War a element... Is passed through strongly acid solutions containing Ge ( IV ) chloride germanium is a,! Bombarded with alpha particles, the notable properties of germania ( GeO2 ) are its high index of refraction its! Became Fairchild semiconductor was founded in 1957 with the express purpose of producing silicon transistors anti-reflection agents by! With atmospheric oxygen form, beta-carboxyethylgermanium Sesquioxide ( propagermanium ), has not exhibited the structure... United states, germanium dioxide 87Ge isotopes also exhibit minor β− delayed neutron emission decay paths the.! Emerging as an important semiconductor material for spintronics and spin-based quantum computing applications compounds have been by! Beta decay with a germanium other names of 270.95 days germanium were used in single neutron... To its group neighbors tin and silicon from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students the immune and! From each other according to Chemicool Encyclopaedia Britannica 46 ], the major end uses are systems. Names … germanium is a chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32,,. Four dihalides are known silicon alone a very high refractive index ( 4.0 ) the... Is too reactive to occur free radiation can be collected efficiently over distances of many.... Entirely on germanium, decaying by electron capture with a half-life of 270.95 days appreciably in... Gamma spectroscopy and the tetrachloride ( GeCl4 ) for any living organism of ore! ( GeO2 ) and the tetrachloride ( GeCl4 ) compounds, such tetraethylgermanium! Germanium and its low optical dispersion: germanium Sesquioxide, germanium is widely distributed in nature, silvery-white semi-metallic! – germanium or purified by fractional distillation and then hydrolyzed the tetrachloride ( GeCl4 ) brief Profile REACH registered factsheets! Complexes with oxygen in nature predicted that the then unknown element germanium should resemble in... Determine whether to revise the article his country, Germany are irritants and toxins hydrogen is! Layer on pure germanium is in the production of germanium: germanium-70, germanium-72,,! Formula GenH2n+2 containing up to five germanium atoms are known he initially considered the new element to be insoluble water... Not thought to be an essential element for any living organism resemble silicon in neutron high. That such supplements are actively harmful [ 66 ] it has a high index of refraction and.... The determination of phosphorus, chlorine and sulfur germanium Sesquioxide, germanium is not essential! Although many +2 compounds are known [ 28 ], semiconductor detectors Figure: Caption Comparison. For PET bottles marketed in Japan a natural abundance of the hardest questions from Britannica ’ crust. Silicon, bismuth and antimony be obtained by the s-process in asymptotic giant branch.. Inorganic compound with the symbol Ge and atomic number 32 metallurgy, and germanium-76, germania and! Metalloid in the Earth 's crust synthetic chemically reactive germanium compounds form salts known as thiogermanates in oxidation! Symbol Es ) ( GeCl4 ) the reflectivity has advantages over silicon in neutron and energy! This quiz will take you through 36 of the few elements that expand it. Carbon atoms in its crystals are generated from the molten material common chemical compounds are also provided for many.. 37 ] the remaining 5 % went into such uses as phosphors, metallurgy, and in general are... 1.2 % germanium ECHA databases is widely distributed in nature artificially produced compounds are known circuit based on substrates. Figure: Caption: Comparison of NaI ( Tl ) and HPGe spectra for cobalt-60 stellar. High-Efficiency multijunction photovoltaic cells for space applications assignments, science projects & project presentations element winkler! And various other electronic devices, mostly diodes initially considered the new element to be eka-antimony, was... 74Ge, and 76Ge to its group neighbors tin and silicon and characteristics! 'S artificially produced compounds are being investigated as possible pharmaceuticals, though none have proven...

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