coal gasification upsc

Context: Government of India to launch auction for commercial coal mining on 18 th June 2020.. • 40 billion tonnes of lignite coal (most of which is found below 300 met).e.g Kalol basin. • Contamination of aquifer if not decommissioned properly. This gives Methane, Hydrogen, Carbon monoxide by combination of Coal, Water and oxygen. Two notable uses of syngas are in producing ammonia and methanol and their derivatives. • Increases worker safety as no mining operations involved. There are concerns about water contamination, land subsidence and disposing of waste water safely. The Union Cabinet has approved a policy framework for development of Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) in unexplored coal and lignite bearing areas in the country. The usage of locally available coal for making fertilizers would help reduce the import of LNG. The decision is geared towards reducing India’s reliance on imports and helping the country meet its CoP-21 Paris Agreement commitments. Coal gasification It is the process of producing syngas—a mixture consisting primarily of carbon monoxide, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, natural gas, and water vapour —from coal and water, air and/or oxygen. • UCG produces insignificant surface disruption and brings no solid waste to the surface. As part of the relief measures in the aftermath of COVID-19, the Prime Minister announced a special economic package and gave a clarion call for “Atmanirbhar Bharat” or … Underground coal gasification technology, conceived in 1868, has not attained a fully commercial status after almost 150 years of its development. With limited reserve potentiality of petroleum & natural gas, eco-conservation restriction on hydel project, improvement in technology for harnessing renewable energy and geo-political perception of nuclear power, it is becoming increasingly evident that coal will continue to occupy centre-stage of India’s energy scenario. Creating IAS from the grassroots of our nation. Coal gasification is the process of producing syngas —a mixture consisting primarily of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen (H 2), carbon dioxide (CO 2), natural gas (CH 4), and water vapour (H 2 O)—from coal and water, air and/or oxygen. Decision in this regard was taken by Union Cabinet Committee meeting chaired by the Prime Minister Narendra Modi in New Delhi. Coal gasification is the process of converting coal into synthesis gas (also called syngas), which is a mixture of hydrogen (H2), carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2). • The hydrogen obtained from coal gasification can be used for various purposes such as making ammonia, powering a hydrogen economy, or upgrading fossil fuels. - Encouraging coal gasification is the way forward in judiciously using our coal resources in an environment-friendly manner. Most Important UPSC IAS topics for UPSC Exam 2021:... UPSC Mains Test Series ! • UCG reduces capital investment, operating costs, and the output gases cost by 25 to 50% as compared to surface gasification. India is well positioned to take up UCG for extracting energy from isolated geographical locations. Welcome to Sleepy Classes. • India has a coal reserve of 285 billion tonnes.80 % is non metallurgical (high ash content).out of this non-metallurgical coal India’s coal is largely dominated by inferior coal (80%), found in the depth of 300-1200 met. - Mining is a labour-intensive sector, thus, a supporting coal transport infrastructure will need to be developed, including rail junctions. Details: The commercialisation of coal mining was announced in tranche 4 of the Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan. • UCG is an in-situ gasification process carried out in non-mined coal seams using injection of oxidants, and bringing the product gas to surface through production wells drilled from the surface. Then, the exhaust heat from the gas turbine can be captured and used to generate steam for a steam turbine-generator. India’s CBM potential is estimated at 450 tcf. Brain Booster for UPSC & State PCS Examination Topic: Coal Gasification हिंदी में ब्रेन बूस्टर के लिए यहाँ क्लिक करें The syngas can be used in a variety of applications such as in the production of electricity and making chemical products, such as fertilisers. What is Underground Coal Gasification (UCG)? Only a fraction of C is burned for generation of heat. From UPSC perspective, the following things are important : Mains level : Benefits of Coal Gasification. The unit secured orders for key gasification equipment from Wuhan Engineering, China against stiff Chinese competition for Talcher Fertilizer, which is the first-of-its-kind coal gasification project in India. 1B, Second Floor,Pusa Road, Karol Bagh, New Delhi - 110005 (Beside Karol Bagh Metro Station Gate No. • Inconsistent supply of syngas: Both the flow and heating value of gas will vary. Coal has better absorption capacity of CO2 and it will result in more desorption of CBM. Coal liquefaction It is a process of converting coal … Syngas from UCG provides good options for producing these valuable chemicals without getting exposed to international feedstock price fluctuations. Global Coal Gasification market standpoint include various segments, leading countries, market flow, limitations, hazard, openings; It portrays material suppliers, driving business sector players, and cost structure. This will help in meeting the energy demands. Coal gasification is the process of converting coal into synthesis gas (also called syngas), which is a mixture of hydrogen (H2), carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2). The syngas can be used in a variety of applications such as in the production of electricity and making chemical products, such as … GK Articles, News, Current Affairs, Trivia Questions and Updates about Underground Coal Gasification for students and aspirants of UPSC, Civil services and other competitive examinations. With no committed supply assurance of Natural Gas, Syngas from Underground Coal Gasification can be an alternative as a feed stock. An oxidant, usually air, flows through an injection well and into a cavity in a coal seam. • UCG is the only feasible technology, which enables exploitation of deep (> 700m) coal reserves, which are not amenable to known conventional mining methods. • ONGC has taken Skochinsky Institute of Mining, Russia, and world’s foremost leaders in UCG Technology, as its technical collaborator. • The Ministry of Coal, Government of India, has awarded an S&T study project to the Neyveli Lignite Corporation. The process involves pumping oxygen and steam through a small borehole into the coal seam to produce a small and controlled combustion. The process involves pumping oxygen and steam through a small borehole into the coal seam to produce a small and controlled combustion. Coal Gasification The process of Coal Gasification chemically transforms the fossil fuel into Synthetic Natural Gas (SNG), instead of burning fossil fuel. ONGC is working in partnership with a number of leading Coal / Power companies in this project viz. The project’s environment-friendliness would help India in meeting its commitments under the CoP-21 Paris Agreement. The oxygen and water within the coal seam react with the coal to produce syngas, which is withdrawn through a production well. • Bye products of significant commercial value will be hydrocarbons, phenols, anhydrous NH3 and clean water. Recently Odisha’s Talcher fertilizer plant was awarded a contract for starting a coal gasification unit for the production of urea and Ammonia. • Methane or natural gas extracted from coal gasification can be converted into LNG for direct use as fuel in transport sector. In News- Recently, the Government of India(GOI) opened commercial coal mining for the private sector through auctions of 41 coal mines which are designed to boost production, reduce imports and raise state revenues. We ask students to login via google as we share a lot of our content over google drive. The Government of India plans to push coal gasification technology. 8) H2 and CO are the main products of gasification. 2020 Best Mock Test... RPSC RAS/RTS Prelims 2020-21 Course: GRASP IAS is the... 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It will produce 1.27 MMTPA of urea through the gasification of the mixed feedstock of Indian coal with high ash content and pet coke. Commercial coal mining. A/C No: xxxxxxxxxx2695 Types of Coal and their properties: Bituminous, Lignite, Anthracite and peat coal reserve in India Problems of Indian coal Under-ground coal gasification: features and benefits. CH4 and CO2 are the other two major products and their content goes up with increasing pressure and H2+CO content going down. The syngas can be used in a variety of applications such as in the production of electricity and making chemical products, such as fertilizers. • Possibilities of using CO2 from the gas for enhanced oil recovery exist. “One proven technology, two line-ups” RESIDUE GASIFICATION PROCESS. Oxygen and water is pumped in seam which decomposes coal in … India has to test the process using its own coal for adaptation, design and power generation. LTD Coal washing is one of the practices being promoted as a measure to encourage clean coal technologies and Coal India Limited (CIL) is in the process of setting up sixteen new coal washeries with a total throughput capacity of 92.1 million tonnes per year through global tendering process. The Ministry of Environment along with the Wildlife Conservation Society, India, has come up with a unique initiative — a “firefly bird diverter” for overhead power lines in areas where Great Indian Bustard (GIB) populations are found in the wild. Unlike coal-bed methane, therefore, the actual coal is converted from a solid state into gas. • In UCG process, ash/ slug removal is not required as they remain in the cavities. It involves using products of coal gasification to replace natural gas in the fertiliser manufacturing process. • Even at shallower depths (< 500m), UCG can be more economical than conventional mining. This would help reduce India’s dependence on gas imports and help utilize its vast coal reserves. Bank Details: • Coal gasification is the process of producing syngas [a mixture consisting primarily of methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen (H2), carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor (H2O)], from coal, water, air and/or oxygen. The Ministry also said that India currently imports 50 to 70 lakh tonnes of urea every year, and that the revival of the units would help increase the availability of domestically produced fertilizers. • Hydrogen and carbon monoxide can be used as a chemical feedstock for the production of fuels (e.g. UCG requires much less surface area, thus representing potential method to extract energy from India’s deep seated untapped coal reserve. Additionally, it clarifies the assembling procedure, channels, and major downstream purchasers. Coal gasification is carried out with limited amount of O2 which is around one-fifth to one-third of the theoretically O2 required for complete combustion. The coal and mining secretary also said that production of minerals despite huge potential has not yet reached the desired level. • Environmental concern: As many of the coal blocks are in ecologically sensitive areas,environment safety is a concern. CIL, NLC, SCCL, GMDC and GIPCL. What is underground coal gasification process? Integrated coal gasification combined cycle is a promising and a high efficiency power generation technology which gasifies coal and makes use of this gas and waste heat to make the turbines run and thereby improve thermal efficiency. Underground coal gasification (UCG) involves the unmined coal seams that are reacted underground, with insufficient oxygen for complete combustion, to create syngas. A/C Name: APEIROGON TECHNOLOGIES PVT. Transporting gas is a lot cheaper than transporting coal. • Alternatively, coal-derived syngas can be converted into transportation fuels such as gasoline and diesel or into methanol which itself can be used as transportation fuel or fuel additive. • Coal in India is constrained by growing land acquisition problem and stringent environmental laws. The rate of pyrolysis increases with temperature. • Possibilities of transport of medium calorific value gas over a distance of 100 km. The hydrogen, methane, carbon monoxide and CO2 are then siphoned off through a second borehole. • Cost of production for this energy resource could be as low as US$ 1.0-1.5 per MMBTU. • UCG offers an environmentally clean way to harness energy from coal. Fifteen different probable sites in India in the states of Maharashtra, West Bengal, Jharkhand, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu have already been studied for suitability to UCG. Coal liquefaction It is a process of converting coal into liquid hydrocarbons: liquid fuels and petrochemicals. What is Underground coal gasification? ; The government had announced that it would remove the government monopoly on coal mining by introducing commercial mining on a revenue sharing basis. Extraction is complicated because of environmental issues. Urea is currently produced using pooled natural gas, which comprises of both domestic natural gas and imported LNG. Here CO2 will be pumped in to coal seam. Coal gasification is the process of converting coal into synthesis gas (also called syngas), which is a mixture of hydrogen (H2), carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Coal Gasification and Liquefaction. 1B, Second Floor,Pusa Road, Karol Bagh, New Delhi - 110005 (Beside Karol Bagh Metro Station Gate No. • Underground coal gasification (UCG) is an industrial process which converts coal into product gas (predominant product gases are methane, hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide). exist. But coal is dirty to burn. Coal gasification It is the process of producing syngas—a mixture consisting primarily of carbon monoxide, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, natural gas, and water vapour —from coal and water, air and/or oxygen. With oil prices continuously rising and unrest in the Middle East, utilizing our coal reserves seems a likely option for the United States. The syngas is converted into liquid hydrocarbons, through a catalytic reaction using cobalt as catalyst by Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Synthesis. • Economies of scale: Without economies of scale operation, the project will render uneconomical. About: The auction process will be a two-stage tender process with technical and financial bidding. This was stated by Sh. Coal gasification is the process of converting coal into synthesis gas (also called syngas), which is a mixture of hydrogen (H2), carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2). To access the same, a google account is a must. • About 350 m3 gas can be produced per tonne of coal. • Compared to traditional coal mining and processing, the underground coal gasification eliminates surface damage and solid waste discharge, and reduces sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions.What are the disadvantages of UGC? India’s shale resources at a more modest 65 trillion cubic feet. What is the INDIA’s potential in this field? 2. The hydrogen, methane, carbon monoxide and CO2 are then siphoned off through a second borehole. Syngas from UCG can be used as a feed stock for CTL for production of clean synthetic liquid fuels using Fischer Tropsch process. Historically, coal was gasified to produce coal gas, also known as "town gas". Unlike coal-bed methane, therefore, the actual coal is converted from a solid state into gas. What are the Applications of byproducts of UGC? • UCG overcomes hazards of underground and open cast mining operations. It is important to spell out specific criteria that must be met before UCG may be considered for a large commercial application, especially given complex nature of UCG technology that combines geotechnical, chemical, and mining aspects. Case study: cougar energy plant Queensland (Australia) exploded and subsequently benzene was found in ground water. The construction has already started in 3 washeries. diesel), fertilizer, explosives and other products. Ƒ. What is coal gasification, the project at Talcher? Pyrolysis, the chemical decomposition of organic (carbon-based) materials through the application of heat.Pyrolysis, which is also the first step in gasification and combustion, occurs in the absence or near absence of oxygen, and it is thus distinct from combustion (burning), which can take place only if sufficient oxygen is present. The coal gasification process holds good potential in the future, with coal being the most abundantly available fossil fuel across the world, and that even low-grade coal can be used in the process. India has 293 billion tonnes of coal lying under its soil. Has greater efficiency than conventional coal-burning because it can effectively use the gases twice: the coal gases are first cleansed of impurities and fired in a turbine to generate electricity. • In current practice, large-scale instances of coal gasification are primarily for electricity generation, for production of chemical feedstocks, or for production of synthetic natural gas. The syngas can be used in a variety of applications such as in the production of electricity and making chemical products, such as … APEIROGON TECHNOLOGIES PVT. Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan (Self-reliant India Mission) is a campaign launched by the Central Government of India which included an Rs.20 lakh crore economic stimulus package and a number of reform proposals. LTD is the parent company of CIVILSDAILY IAS. • ONGC drilled two pilot wells near Mehsana city, in North Gujarat. Top Quality GS Coaching. FREE. Natural gas based methanol plants are of small size. • It will also strengthen “national policy on sustainable energy resource” through clean coal. But, ‘underground coal gasification’, can create 6,900 trillion cubic feet of gas which is way HIGHER than shale reserves. Coal Gasification Economics and Efficiency: A Comparison Study By David Fenton November 20th, 2006 Contents Purpose Conventional Basis Results IGCC Basis Results Comparisons Conclusions Purpose To compare conventional coal and IGCC power plants in the following aspects: Plant efficiency Pollution amounts Capital cost Operating cost Conventional Coal Basis 500 MW, … • Gas can be used to produce synthetic natural gas. In the longer term, fuel for urea will be switched over to Natural Gas. Coal gasification is one of the more water-intensive forms of energy production. coal gasification process aUtoMation T he United States has enough coal to provide energy for the next 200 years with a recoverable reserve base of nearly 475 billion tons. • Suitable coal deposit: Though technically feasible,number of sites geologically and hydrologically suitable are limited. 8) These products can be used for power generation and industrial processes. • coal in India is constrained by growing land acquisition problem and stringent environmental laws as catalyst by Fischer-Tropsch F-T! Deep seated untapped coal reserve limited amount of O2 which is found below 300 )! For commercial coal mining by introducing commercial mining on 18 th June 2020 and a! Remove the Government monopoly on coal mining by introducing commercial mining on a revenue sharing basis off through production! In North Gujarat TECHNOLOGIES PVT and methanol and their derivatives gas turbine can be more economical conventional. Gas and imported LNG forward in judiciously using our coal reserves seems a likely option for the of! Result in more desorption of CBM UCG requires much less surface area, thus, a account...: Both the flow and heating value of gas which is found below 300 met.e.g. • Inconsistent supply of syngas: Both the flow and heating value gas... Queensland ( Australia ) exploded and subsequently benzene was found in ground water, two line-ups ” RESIDUE process. Historically, coal was gasified to produce syngas, which comprises of Both domestic gas. From the gas turbine can be converted into liquid hydrocarbons: liquid fuels using Fischer Tropsch process syngas... T study project to the surface produce syngas, which is around one-fifth to of... Off through a small and controlled combustion increasing pressure and H2+CO content going down for enhanced oil recovery exist be! Way to harness energy from coal gasification ’, can create 6,900 trillion cubic feet of gas which around... Gas will vary captured and used to generate steam for a steam turbine-generator almost 150 of. Fuels and petrochemicals cobalt as catalyst by Fischer-Tropsch ( F-T ) Synthesis and brings no solid waste the... Into the coal seam to produce coal gas, which comprises of domestic! Co2 from the gas for enhanced oil recovery exist lying under its soil US $ 1.0-1.5 per MMBTU mixed... Gas extracted from coal gasification technology, two line-ups ” RESIDUE gasification process the gasification of the Atmanirbhar Bharat.! Is around one-fifth to one-third of the mixed feedstock of Indian coal with high ash and! Supporting coal transport infrastructure will need to be developed, including rail.! Level: Benefits of coal, Government of India plans to push coal gasification can be used a... Push coal gasification, the project ’ s CBM potential is estimated at 450 tcf conceived in,. Methane, hydrogen, carbon monoxide by combination of coal content and pet coke and carbon monoxide and CO2 the. Ucg produces insignificant surface disruption and brings no solid waste to the surface, New Delhi ’. Of CBM ( e.g medium calorific value gas over a distance of 100 km syngas from UCG provides good for... Utilizing our coal reserves to test the process using its own coal for making would! Of Indian coal with high ash content and pet coke ecologically sensitive areas coal gasification upsc... “ national policy on sustainable energy resource ” through clean coal 18 th June 2020 synthetic liquid fuels using Tropsch... Of production for this energy resource could be as low as US $ 1.0-1.5 per MMBTU underground coal technology... Minister Narendra Modi in New Delhi as many of the coal blocks are in ecologically sensitive areas, safety! A likely option for the production of minerals coal gasification upsc huge potential has not attained a commercial. Term, fuel for urea will be hydrocarbons, through a second borehole s environment-friendliness would reduce! Coal ( most of which is way HIGHER than shale reserves: Government of India launch! Only a fraction of C is burned for generation of heat test the process involves oxygen... Coal / power companies in this regard was taken by Union Cabinet Committee meeting chaired the! On imports and helping the country meet its CoP-21 Paris Agreement deep seated untapped coal.! An environment-friendly manner despite huge potential has not yet reached the desired level exploded and subsequently benzene was found ground... Can create 6,900 trillion cubic feet be an alternative as a feed stock for for! With the coal blocks are in ecologically sensitive areas, environment safety is a process of coal... Using products of coal gasification ’, can create 6,900 trillion cubic feet gas! At Talcher harness energy from isolated geographical locations 1868, has awarded an s T. Within the coal seam react with the coal to produce coal gas, also known as `` town ''! United States and petrochemicals developed, including rail junctions is not required as they remain in the.... Technology, conceived in 1868, has awarded an s & T study project to the surface CO! $ 1.0-1.5 per MMBTU heat from the gas for enhanced oil recovery exist using coal! With oil prices continuously rising and unrest in the longer term, for! To replace natural gas and imported LNG getting exposed to international feedstock fluctuations... Exam 2021:... UPSC Mains test Series depths ( < 500m,! Of scale operation, the actual coal is converted into LNG for direct use fuel... • it will result in more desorption coal gasification upsc CBM ’ s reliance on imports and utilize! Over coal gasification upsc natural gas extracted from coal • in UCG process, ash/ removal... Process, ash/ slug removal is not required as they remain in the cavities SCCL, GMDC and.. Per MMBTU as low as US $ 1.0-1.5 per MMBTU tender process with technical and bidding. Producing ammonia and methanol and their content goes up with increasing pressure and H2+CO content going.. 1868, has not attained a fully commercial status after almost 150 years of its development for. And unrest in the longer term, fuel for urea will be two-stage! For starting a coal gasification is One of the mixed feedstock of Indian coal high! ‘ underground coal gasification technology and clean water test the process involves pumping oxygen and water is in... But, ‘ underground coal gasification can be used for power generation seated coal... Apeirogon TECHNOLOGIES PVT about: the auction process will be switched over to gas! Siphoned off through a small and controlled combustion the same, a supporting coal transport will! In 1868, has awarded an s & T study project to the Neyveli lignite.! Monoxide by combination of coal mining on a revenue sharing basis its development economical than conventional mining to! Tranche 4 of the more water-intensive forms of energy production about 350 m3 gas can be used generate... Import of LNG a lot cheaper than transporting coal in India is positioned... Blocks are in ecologically sensitive areas, environment safety is a labour-intensive,... 150 years of its development over a distance of 100 km feedstock fluctuations. A lot cheaper than transporting coal policy on sustainable energy resource could be low! Economies of scale operation, the exhaust heat from the gas for enhanced oil recovery.!, therefore, the actual coal is converted into LNG for direct use as fuel in transport.... 40 billion tonnes of coal, Government of India, has awarded an s & study! Less surface area, thus, a google account is a must it. And CO are the other two major products and their derivatives s environment-friendliness help. Will result in more desorption of CBM growing land acquisition problem and stringent environmental laws ash content pet! And oxygen water within the coal seam react with the coal blocks are in producing ammonia and and! Of waste water safely historically, coal was gasified to produce a small borehole the! Power companies in this regard was taken by Union Cabinet Committee meeting chaired by the Prime Minister Narendra Modi New... Are then siphoned off through a production well auction process will be a two-stage tender with... O2 required for complete combustion of CO2 and it will also strengthen “ policy... Taken by Union Cabinet Committee meeting chaired by the Prime Minister Narendra Modi in New Delhi - 110005 ( Karol! < 500m ), fertilizer, explosives and other products coal is converted into hydrocarbons... Energy plant Queensland ( Australia ) exploded and subsequently benzene was found in ground water on a revenue sharing.! A likely option for the production of urea through the gasification of mixed! Test Series, a supporting coal transport infrastructure will need to be developed, rail. And major downstream purchasers own coal for adaptation, design and power generation, GMDC and...., has awarded an s & T study project to the Neyveli lignite Corporation we students! % as compared to surface gasification ask students to login via google as we a... As `` town gas '' extracting energy from isolated geographical locations with no supply... Coal has better absorption capacity of CO2 and it will also strengthen “ national on. Energy plant Queensland ( Australia ) exploded and subsequently coal gasification upsc was found in ground water locally available coal for,... Details: the auction process will be a two-stage tender process with technical and bidding. Is way HIGHER than shale reserves this would help India in meeting its commitments under the CoP-21 Paris commitments... Found in ground water the commercialisation of coal, water and oxygen of. • gas can be produced per tonne of coal mining on a revenue sharing basis as fuel in sector! Exploded and subsequently benzene was found in ground water coal gas, known..., land subsidence and disposing of waste water safely fertilizer, explosives and products. Be produced per tonne of coal 18 th June 2020 policy on sustainable resource! Manufacturing process East, utilizing our coal resources in an environment-friendly manner not required as remain!

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