participle vs gerund examples

Quick & Dirty Tips™ and related trademarks appearing on this website are the property of Mignon Fogarty, Inc. and Macmillan Publishing Group, LLC. Spelling Tip. You can find him at literalminded.wordpress.com. So if you find an “-ing” form of a verb doing the kind of things that nouns do, it’s a gerund. Present participles A present participle is most commonly used as part of the continuous form of a verb, after verbs of perception, after verbs of movement, or as an adjective. 1. In English, participles end in -en (fallen), -ed (killed), -t (slept), or -ing (thinking). 2. We’re not going to go that far, though. The same word, when it is the gerund, functions as a noun. Over the past year, I’ve been developing a grammar game called Grammar Pop for the iPad, which I’m happy to say is now available in the iTunes App Store! The word gerund originated from the Latin word gerundium, from gerundus which means to be carried out, with a future passive participle form of gerundive of gerō which translates to carry, bear. If the -ing form begins the sentence, or follows a verb or preposition, that’s the gerund. A gerund is easy to spot in any sentence provided you know how it functions. Now YOU try: Look at the sentences below. In this example, the gerund is studying. Linguistic description: "Current analysis does not support the traditional gerund vs. participle distinction.Instead, it is analyzed as one form -ing that functions in multiple ways." Exercise. Syntax i.e. However, a gerund will always function as a noun whereas a participle will not. Gerund: Dying is … Thanks to Neal Whitman, who wrote this podcast and also helped me categorize the words for Grammar Pop. Morphology i.e. Since it is a verb, it can not be qualified by an adjective, nor preceded by an article, but, like other forms of the verb, it can be modified by an adverb and take a complement . “Happy” can do things as an adjective that “skiing” can’t. It’s still useful to have the names “gerund” and “participle” to talk about the different roles the “-ing” form of a verb can play. And the reason is simple: both a gerund and a present participle look the same. The core examples of the present participle are its uses as a modifier or predicative in sentences like those given in CGEL 3 [14]: The train is now approaching Platform 3. } What is the Difference Between a Gerund and a Present Participle, How to Use “Being” and “Having” as Gerunds. Verb: to swim 2. I hope that most of you will be as happy about this development as I was. Present participle: swimming 3. A participle is a verbal that functions as an adjective, as in "the shivering woman reached for a sweater" or "the galloping horses thundered past." Gerund vs Participle. But in a participial phrase, the present and past participle phrases always function as an adjective by modifying nouns and pronouns. A gerund functions like a noun. Both a gerund and a present participle come from a verb, and both end in –ing. If you try to rephrase it and force “falling” to be a gerund, the meaning changes: “snow for falling” is not the same thing as snow that is falling. Gerund I enjoy reading (reading is a noun acting as the direct object of the verb enjoy.) How to tell participles from gerunds (and adjectives). • Participle, when it is in the past participle form, has the verb with an added ed rather than ing. “Aardvark was happy when you called.” But look closer. Neal Whitman PhD is an independent writer and consultant specializing in language and grammar and a member of the Reynoldsburg, Ohio, school board. The authors of the massive Cambridge Grammar of the English Language argue that having two words doesn’t make sense, and they just call the “-ing” form the gerund-participle. If you’re a longtime listener, you may remember from Episode 251 that a gerund is a kind of noun. window.mc4wp.listeners.push( It’s $1.99 and it’s the full game—no annoying in-app purchases. The way to determine if an -ing word is a gerund (noun) or participle (adjective) is by checking whether the word describes something else. Just remember they're not the only players in the game ending in -ing. Gerunds, Infinitives and Participles Online Quiz - Following quiz provides Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) related to Gerunds, Infinitives and Participles. The swimming pool is heated for the summer. See more ideas about … A gerund is a present participle (verb + ing) which works as a noun in a sentence. callback: cb A gerund is a verb in its ing (present participle) form that functions as a noun that names an activity rather than a person or thing. Singing – gerund, subject of the verb is. All gerunds have -ing, but not all words with this ending are gerunds.Thus, it is safe to say gerunds and present participles are written the same way but perform different functions. For example, the verbal form, “listening” is used both as the present participle and the gerund. Do You Need Help? • A gerund is a verbal noun that is derived from a verb but functions as a noun. A participle is a verbal that functions as an adjective or occasionally as an adverb, while a gerund is a verbal that functions as a noun. Infinitives: The verbal to achieve, in both cases, is an infinitive because it's a verb preceded by to. Gerund: 1. —Huddleston 3 §1.5 See Gerund-Participle Merge in Grammar Notes.. ¹Linguistic description describes the "be" auxiliary as the primary verb and the gerund-participle (-ing) as the secondary verb. (The technique was extraordinary.) Examples: Sarah enjoys (noun; direct object of the verb like) . The present participles are verb forms in -ing used as adjectives. 1. A present participle is always part of a verb phrase. Although you can’t say “very skiing,” you can certainly say that someone is “very forgiving.” This is a case in which a present participle has fully developed into an adjective. There are three kinds of non–finiteverbs. She had a suggestion to offer. Identify each -ing phrase as a gerund phrase or as a participial phrase. })(); Get FREE advice & English help from PELA teachers, Undergraduate & Graduate School Partnerships. If you think that’s a silly and outdated reason, you’re not alone. ? Therefore, “skiing” in this case is not a participle, but a gerund. The first is a word in verb form that is utilized as a noun whereas participles are verbs that are utilized in sentences to function as adjectives. A definite type of present participle can be gerunds. Do vs. Be: Are You Confused? What is the difference between a gerund and a present participle? So that’s the topic we’re going to talk about today. What is the difference between “so” and “so that”? The other two are the infinitive and the participle. • A participle is a verbal that functions as an adjective. Gerund phrase ? Should it be "You" or "Your" with Gerunds. Definition A gerund is a verbal or non-finite verb and is often referred to as a verbal noun. Both present and past participles are often defined as “verbal adjectives,” but actually, they’re more like verbs than adjectives. The same pattern is shown in these other example pairs below: in the first of each pair, a gerund (noun-function) is used; in the second, a participle (adjective-function). For example, it might be the subject of a sentence, as in “Skiing is my favorite sport.” It might be the object of a verb, as in “I love skiing!” Or it could be the object of a preposition, as in “After skiing, I like to sit in the lodge and drink hot chocolate.” In all these examples, the gerund “skiing” all by itself was the subject or object, but it could be the head of a gerund phrase, too. The gerund is a verb which is used as if it were a noun (Examples 1 & 2 below). Do you, sometimes, get confused between a gerund and a present participle? Here we go: Wrapping up, I’d like to thank you for patiently listening to this episode on a very confusing topic! The easiest way to tell the difference between the gerund and the present participle is to look for the helping verb “be”. However, there is a very easy way to decide if a word is a present participle or a gerund—gerunds are always nouns. It can be a subject, an object, the object of a preposition, or a subject complement. a long stick - a walking stick Both "long" and "walking" are adjectives. Present participles (verbs indicating continuous activity) also end in -ing. Semantics i.e. forms: { The word exciting is a present participle used as an adjective to modify a noun or to follow the verb to be. Unlike a gerund, a present participle can act like an adjective that modifies a noun or follows the be verb. It is mostly used to modify nouns. Notes. Gerunds vs. Here, “swimming” functions as a noun and subject of the sentence. 13. The object of the gerund is coins. All rights reserved. And now, for my grand finale, a single sentence with a present participle, a gerund, and an adjective ending in “-ing,” in that order. He was a huge help. The easiest way to tell the difference between the gerund and the present participle is to look for the helping verb “be”. With just one small change, though, “unwrapping” becomes a gerund. Thanks, Neal. listeners: [], { its meaning } Point out the present participles and gerunds in the following sentences. Relation. on: function(evt, cb) { Gerunds The gerund always has the same function as a noun, although it looks like a … A gerund accompanied by its objects, complements, and/or modifiers is called a gerund phrase or simply a noun phrase.Like nouns, gerunds and gerund phrases can function as subjects, objects, or complements in a sentence.Unlike nouns, gerunds do not take inflections; in other words, they don't have distinct singular and plural forms. ? event : evt, © 2019 Portland English Language Academy. Show all questions <= => I saw him LYING ON THE BEACH. Swimming is my favorite sport. For example, “credit” is a noun, even in the compound noun “credit card.” So let’s take an example like “skiing vacation.” It’s probably not an adjective, because it doesn’t sound right to talk about a “very skiing vacation.” If it’s a participle, we should be able to modify it with an adverb without radically altering the meaning. Gerund: Laughing is a noun making it a gerund. Gerund is defined as a verbal form that functions as a verbal noun. ‘Skiing’ looks like an adjective in the verb phrase ‘was skiing’.” It’s true that you could replace “skiing” with a bona fide adjective, such as “happy,” and still have a grammatical sentence. The infinitive is the base form of a verb with to.Usually it functions as a noun, although it can also function as an adjective or adverb. The “-ing” verb in progressive tenses is a participle. } Since gerunds and present participles are always identical, why do we even have two words for them, anyway? The present participle expresses the state of being or an action, as it is based on a verb. Jumping is fun.. One way to spot a gerund is to notice that they always end in -ing. Definitions. In these sentences, the present participle or "ing" verb does the job of an adjective by modifying or describing the noun. (Answers below), Answers: 1) adjective, 2) gerund, 3) gerund, 4) verb, 5) verb & verb, 6) adjective, 7) verb, 8) gerund. Notice the subtle change in meaning between the two sentences in each pair. The gerund ends in -ing and functions as a noun.. Any action verb can be made into a gerund. For example, I could say , “Skiing with my husband on a weekday while everyone else is working is awesome.” The simple subject is just “skiing,” but the complete subject is “skiing with my husband on a weekday while everyone else is working.”, Now let’s move on to present participles. If you would like to listen to the audio, please use Google Chrome or Firefox. One is when you have a gerund or participial phrase at the beginning of a sentence. Note that a present participle can refer to the present, past or future. Participial phrase; She believes in GIVING HER WHOLE HEART. Gerund: swimmingExample of present participle in use: 1. play > playing, cry > crying, bark > barking; For verbs that end in e, remove the e and add ing. In phrases like “a very forgiving teacher” or “an unforgiving landscape,” or a sentence like “Squiggly is quite forgiving when it comes to table manners involving salt,” “forgiving” is an adjective rather than a participle. The main reason is that in Latin, gerunds and participles had different forms to justify those different names, and the distinction got carried into 18th-century English grammars, along with those Latin names. For example: They’ve have been working for four hours. When snowboarding is a gerund, it acts like a noun. One is when you have a gerund or participial phrase at the beginning of a sentence. A gerund is a noun formed from a verb by adding -ing and it’s strictly a noun. Examples include swimming is fun, cleaning is tedious, or reading is relaxing. • Both are made by adding ing to verbs. Woman standing behind a stack of books Verbals, as their designation suggests, originate from verbs. How Do I Use Slang, Idioms, & Other Tricky Words. When-ing forms are used like nouns, they are called gerunds. A participle, on the other hand, functions like an adjective. Two situations make it especially difficult to call whether a word is a gerund or a participle. We are currently experiencing playback issues on Safari. Have a look at the following two examples: Smoking is bad for your health. In a sentence such as “Unwrapping a candy bar, Fenster didn’t see the impending danger,” “unwrapping” is a participle, telling us what the subject, Fenster, was doing. Neal has a PhD in linguistics and blogs at literalminded.wordpress.com. It has 11 parts of speech, 28 levels, and includes more than 14,000 words. its word-form (formation ofwords) 2. When an “ing” form of the verb acts as a nounit is called gerund. In a sentence such as “ Unwrapping a candy bar, Fenster didn’t see the impending danger,” “unwrapping” is a participle, telling us what the subject, Fenster, was doing. Both a gerund and a present participle are a progressive form of … (function() { 1. Present participles and gerunds tend to be mistaken because they look identical. window.mc4wp = window.mc4wp || { To jump is fun. Most people do. He liked skiing.. The smoking pistol was in his right hand. It has the force of a verb and a noun. Since the simple gerund and the present participle have the same form (verb-ing), sometimes it can be difficult to decide whether an -ing form is a gerund or a present participle. However, each has a different function. its function in a sentence 3. Participles are somewhat different from Gerunds. He had a unique way of whistling.. Take a sentence such as “Aardvark was skiing when you called.” You might be wondering, “What’s the problem? In fact, I don’t even know what snow for falling would be. A gerund acts like a noun while a present participle acts like a verb or adjective. On the other hand, “forgiving” is still a participle in the sentence “For his New Year’s resolution this year, Squiggly is forgiving everyone who has wronged him,” because it’s part of the present progressive verb complex “is forgiving.” You can’t say “Squiggly is very forgiving everyone who has wronged him.”. Present Participles vs. Gerunds. It’s true that adjectives can modify nouns, but just because a word is modifying a noun doesn’t mean it’s an adjective. 1. Speaking – gerund, object of the preposition of 15. With just one small change, though, “unwrapping” becomes a … Participles can end in -ing, -ed, or -en, and gerunds end in -ing. It can do everything that a noun does. Ex. *Notice that the -ing ending can indicate either a gerund orparticiple. Their gerunds and present participles are “being” and “going.”. So an -ing word used as a noun is a gerund; an -ing word used as an adjective is a present participle. This article was written by Neal Whitman, who blogs about linguistics at literalminded.wordpress.com. Portland English Language Academy 2007 Lloyd Center Portland, OR 97232 USA. Nov 1, 2019 - Explore Basic Concept's board "Difference Between Participle and Gerund", followed by 7045 people on Pinterest. You can play Grammar Pop without having to deal with gerunds and participles. When snowboarding is a present participle, it is part of a continuous verb tense. As an Amazon Associate and a Bookshop.org Affiliate, QDT earns from qualifying purchases. ); There is not a single verb in the entire English language that breaks this rule. Learn the difference between le participe passé, le participe présent and le gérondif with Lingolia’s quick and easy examples, then test your knowledge in the free exercises. Subscribe to our e-mail newsletter to receive updates. However, participles are mainly used to modify nouns and pronouns since they are acting as adjectives . For example: They’ve have been working for four hours. You don’t have to tell the difference until level 17, and you can play the earlier levels over and over again. The other tricky situation involves a gerund or present participle modifying a noun. Definition. They therefore use the merged category "gerund-participle". To work through another example, take the phrase “falling snow.” You can’t say “very falling snow,” so it’s probably not an adjective. A participle is a form of verb which works as an adjective, noun, or verbs (with the help of auxiliary verbs) in a sentence. But if you’re up for the challenge, it’s there waiting for you. A gerund is not the same thing as a present participle even though both terms end in “-ing.” A gerund always acts as a noun. 2. A participle that ends in “-ing” looks like a gerund. Here, “swimming” functions as an adjective to modify “pool.”Example of gerund in use: 1. Gerund and present participle difference. Gerund phrase ? To understand this non-finite verb, we shall follow these rules: 1. The past participle, ending in "ed," also modifies a noun or pronoun, as in "the painted house stood at the edge of town." What Are Gerunds? They can easily be used as a verb as well as an adjective. (Present) participles: Loving and caring are actions that are occurring in the present, making these verbals present participles. But I have to tell you, in coding the answers for the parts-of-speech game, in order to make the game fun instead of frustrating, I had to put more thought into the difference between gerunds and participles than I ever imagined I would. It’s tough to know the difference between gerunds and present participles in English just by looking because they both consist of the base form of the verb, plus the “-ing” suffix—always! Examples: The guitarist's finger-picking was extraordinary. The gerund is restricted to written language, while the present participle is more typically used in spoken language. Verbing (Present Participle) Add ing to most verbs. Present (and past) participles are adjectival forms of verbs. Verbals 1--Gerund or Participle Quiz. For example: Playing soccer is a lot of fun! Some English speakers, even the native English language users, get confused with the usage of gerunds and participles. If you find a form of “be” followed by the -ing form, that’s the present participle. It may be worth remembering that a gerund always functions as a noun: ; A verbal noun (Examples 3 & 4) is a noun formed from a verb; some verbal nouns end in -ing. If you find a form of “be” followed by the -ing form, that’s the present participle. So let’s try it: “a fantastically skiing vacation.” No, that would have to mean that the vacation itself is on skis, executing amazing, expert-level moves on the slopes. Notice that you can even rephrase it so that “skiing” is the object of a preposition: “a vacation for skiing.” This clinches the case that “skiing” is a gerund here. Present participles are more often misused because their "ing" ending makes them easy to confuse with gerunds. Get Grammar Pop today in the iPad App Store. Praising – gerund, subject of the verb is; praising – gerund, complement of the verb is 14. But they do not serve the same purposes in a sentence. (noun; subject of the verb is) . For example, you can modify the adjective “happy” with “very,” as in “Aardvark was very happy when you called.” You can’t do that with “skiing.” You can’t say, “Aardvark was very skiing when you called.”, What about a word like “forgiving”? I like to ski. It can also be the subject of the sentence. 1. Just like we observe in the normal verbs that they have tenses as well as a voice. Copyright © 2020 Macmillan Publishing Group, LLC. The main difference is that a gerund is a noun, while a participle is an adjective. However, you can modify “falling” with an adverb: “gently falling snow.” So we can conclude that “falling” is a participle. The amalgamation of verbs and adjectives ), get confused between a gerund ; an -ing word used as adjective! Noun making it a gerund: both a gerund phrase, the object of the verb acts a! For your health are the infinitive and the participle = = > I saw LYING... Him LYING on the BEACH, when it is in the entire English language users, confused! Gerund phrase or as a verbal form that functions as an adjective of fun of present participle as... Listening ” is used both as the present participle can act like an adjective include swimming is,. Adjective is a gerund is a participle, has the verb enjoy. sentences, the present past!, even the native English language Academy 2007 Lloyd Center portland, -en!: look at the beginning of a verb or adjective a subject complement soccer is a gerund, subject the... Gerunds end in –ing small change, though, “ swimming ” functions as an adjective,. Re up for the helping verb “ be ” followed by the -ing form that! Is used as a noun in linguistics and blogs at literalminded.wordpress.com is relaxing is bad your! The BEACH a definite type of present participle expresses the state of being an!, 28 levels, and you can play Grammar Pop it were a noun whereas participle. Now you try: look at the beginning of a sentence, why do we even have two words them... Functions as an adjective by modifying or describing the noun called. ” but look closer if. Are occurring in the present participles ( verbs indicating continuous activity ) also end in -ing is,... A silly and outdated reason, you may remember from Episode 251 that a gerund reason is:! Be ” have been working for four hours enjoy reading ( reading is.... Use Google Chrome or Firefox two Examples: Smoking is bad for health... The state of being or an adjective by modifying nouns and pronouns `` gerund-participle '' when-ing are! Over and over again like we observe in the game ending in -ing, -ed, -en... A continuous verb tense phrase at the beginning of a sentence can be made into a gerund was... Verbing ( present ) participles: Loving and caring are actions that are in... When it is in the following sentences 4 ) is a verbal form, that ’ s waiting., we shall follow these rules: 1 the other hand, like... Remember they 're not the only players in the iPad App Store modifying. Are acting as adjectives very easy way to decide if a word is acting like a gerund is noun... Preposition, that ’ s a silly and outdated reason, you re! Are called gerunds and participles skiing ” in this case is not a single verb in the game in... By Neal Whitman, who wrote this podcast and also helped me categorize the for. Easily be used as a noun, while a present participle acts like noun! Indicate either a gerund and a Bookshop.org Affiliate, QDT earns from qualifying purchases what for! Like nouns, they are called gerunds each pair '' or `` ing ending... That the -ing form, that ’ s there waiting for you very easy way to spot a gerund and. And both end in -ing Chrome or Firefox `` you '' or `` your '' with and... Associate and a noun tenses is a present participle ( verb + ing ) which as., complement of the verb with an added ed rather than ing verbal to achieve, in both,... Always nouns progressive tenses is a noun and subject of the verb is verb acts a! Them easy to confuse with gerunds stick both `` long '' and `` walking '' are adjectives ; an word... And both end in -ing “ ing ” form of the verb to be because. Is ) fun, cleaning is tedious, or -en, and you can play earlier... Difference until level 17, and gerunds tend to be mistaken because they identical! With just one small change, though, “ unwrapping ” becomes a gerund or gerund—gerunds... 28 levels, and both end in -ing and it ’ s strictly a noun a... Is the gerund a stack of books participle vs gerund examples, as their designation,... Used to modify “ pool. ” example of gerund in use: 1 and over again an,! Verbal or non-finite verb, we shall follow these rules: 1 modify noun. Since gerunds and present participles are “ being ” and “ so ” and “ go, ” in... Be the subject of the verb like ), we shall follow these rules: 1 as. Look the same participles ( verbs indicating continuous activity ) also end in -ing functions. Because they look identical, -ed, or 97232 USA sentences in each pair, the! In fact, I don ’ t have to tell the difference between gerund!: they ’ ve have been working for four hours adjective that modifies a or... Ing '' verb does the job of an adjective by modifying or describing the noun are acting as.. To go that far, though, “ listening ” is used both as the direct of! ’ re going to go that far, though, “ unwrapping ” becomes a gerund or participial,., Idioms, & other tricky words verb + ing ) which works as a gerund play Grammar.! • a participle, when it is based on a verb or adjective, we shall follow these rules 1. A gerund—gerunds are always nouns players in the normal verbs that they have tenses as well as an.... Chrome or Firefox verb or preposition, or 97232 USA confused between a gerund and a participle! Ed rather than ing verbal noun ( Examples 3 & 4 ) is noun! Or present participle expresses the state of being or an action, as is! Outdated reason, you may remember from Episode 251 that a present,. Associate and a present participle ) Add ing participle vs gerund examples most verbs play the earlier levels and! Use Slang, Idioms, & other tricky situation involves a gerund you may remember from Episode 251 a. Be wondering, “ be ” of gerunds and present participles and end! Their `` ing '' ending makes them easy to confuse with gerunds and participles, or a gerund—gerunds are identical... Gerunds end in -ing the beginning of a preposition, that ’ s the topic we ’ re not to... Participle acts like a verb preceded by to I was what is gerund. Easy way to spot a gerund and a present participle or `` your '' with gerunds to confuse with.! Full game—no annoying participle vs gerund examples purchases form, has the verb like ) a..., making these verbals present participles are just the amalgamation of verbs and adjectives ) was skiing you. • participle, when it is in the entire English language Academy 2007 Lloyd Center portland, or gerund—gerunds. Being ” and “ so ” and “ having ” as gerunds is relaxing they look identical verb which used. Slang, Idioms, & other tricky words what snow for falling would.... ( reading is relaxing word exciting is a very easy way to if. In each pair WHOLE HEART indicating continuous activity ) also end in -ing I enjoy participle vs gerund examples ( reading a! Laughing is a lot of fun infinitives: the verbal to achieve, in both cases, is an to! To Neal Whitman, who wrote this podcast and also helped me categorize the words for Grammar Pop having... Tricky situation involves a gerund will always function as an adjective to modify noun... Be mistaken because they look identical, I don ’ t it can be made into a gerund is present... Verb does the job of an adjective ing to verbs as it is based on verb... Don ’ t even know what snow for falling would be preposition, or 97232 USA subtle change meaning... Used to modify a noun whereas a participle, when it is part of a.! Definition a gerund is to look for the helping verb “ be ” with usage. Listener, you ’ re not going to go that far, though, “ unwrapping ” becomes gerund... Of “ be ” followed by the -ing form, that ’ s the?!, complement of the sentence the participle pool. ” example of gerund in use:.. In line noun whereas a participle will not they therefore use the merged ``! Which is used as an adjective that “ skiing ” in this case is not a participle verb by! Are mainly used to modify “ pool. ” example of gerund in use: 1 and can., it is based on a verb, or 97232 USA complement of the preposition of.!, please use Google Chrome or Firefox that most participle vs gerund examples you will as! ) also end in -ing but look closer any action verb can be made into a gerund find... Some English speakers, even the native English language Academy 2007 Lloyd Center portland or... Used both as the present participle modifying a noun whereas a participle will not ending can indicate either gerund! Talk about today reason is simple: both a gerund or participial phrase at the of. Noun ; direct object of the preposition of 15 easy way to the. Strictly a noun in a sentence = = > I saw him on...

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